Published Research


The following publications validate the sphenoid bone as the central bone of the craniofacial complex and how its distortion can lead to pain and dysfunction:


American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics. 2003, Dec; 124(6):656-62

Asymmetry of the sphenoid bone and its suitability as a reference for analysing craniofacial asymmetries.

Kim YH, Sato K, Mitani H, ShimIzu Y, Kikuchi M


Division of Orthodontics, Department of Lifelong Oral Health Science, Graduate School of Dentistry, University of Tohoku


Odontostomatol Proodos. 1990, April; 44(2):101-6

Morphology of the sphenoid bone in individuals with syndromes that affect the craniofacial complex.

Papagrigorakis MJ, Spyropoulos ND


Department of Orthodontics, University of Athens, Greece


Angle Orthod. 2003, Aug; 73(4):381-5

Craniofacial asymmetry in development: an anatomical study.

Rossi M, Ribeiro E, Smith R


Department of Anatomy, Bahiana School of Dentistry, Bahia, Brazil


Bosn J Basic Med Sci. 2004, Jul; 4(3):40-6

Study on skull asymmetry.

Sarac - Hadzihalilovic A, Dilberovic F


Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina


J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2003, Sept; 29(7):561-5

Reversible pelvic asymmetry: an overlooked syndrome manifesting as scoliosis, apparent leg length difference and neurological symptoms.

Timgren K, Soinila S


Unit of Physiatry, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland


The following publications validate the movement of the cranial bones:


Cranio. 2002, Jan; 20(1):34-8

Radiographic evidence of cranial bone mobility.

Oleski SL, Smith G, Crow WT


Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine, Pennsylvania, USA


J Dent Res. 2007, Jan; 86(1):12-24

Remodelling the dentofacial skeleton: the biological basis of orthodontics and craniofacial orthopaedics.

Meikle MC


Department of Oral Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, New Zealand


The following publications validate that short, compressesed faces are suboptimal and may lead to pain and dysfunction of the TMJ:


J Clin Paediatric Dent. 2000; 25(1):23-8

Cephalometric studies of children with long and short faces

Tsai HH


Department of Pedodontics, School of Dentistry, China Medical College


J Orofacial Pain. 2004; 18(2):108-13

Joint tenderness, jaw opening, chewing velocity and bite forces in patients with TMJ pain and matched healthy control subjects.

Hansdottir R, Bakke M


Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Copenhagen, Denmark


European J Ortho. 1998, Dec; 20(6):701-12

Adolescent female craniofacial morphologyassociated with advanced bilateral TMJ disc displacement.

Nebbe B, Major PW, Prasad NG


TMD Investigation Unit, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada


Am J Orthodontics Dentofacial Orthopaedics. 2005, Jul; 128(1):87-95

Relationship between internal derangement of TMJ joint and dentofacial morphology in women with an anterior open bite.

Byun ES, Ahn SJ, KIm TW


Department of Orthodonotics, College of Dentistry, National University of Seoul, Korea


J Oral Rehabilitation. 2002, May; 29(5):417-22

Relationship between functional disc position and mandibular displacement in adolescent females: posteroanterior cephalograms and MRI a retrospctive study.

Nakagawa S, Sakabe J, Nakajima I, Akasaka M


Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Tokyp, Japan


Angle Ortho. 2007, Mar; 77(2):288-95

Orthodontic effects on dentofacial morphology in women with bilateral TMJ disc displacement.

Ahn SJ, Lee SJ, Kim TW


Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University


Am J Ortho Dentofacial Orthopaedics. 2005, Nov; 128(5):583-91

Relationship between TMJ internal derangement and facial asymmetry in woman.

Ahn SJ, Lee SP, Nahm DS


Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University


Angle Ortho. 2000, Feb; 70(1):81-8

Craniofacial asymmetry and TMJ internal derangement in female adolescents: a posteroanterior cephalometric study.

Trpkova B, Major P, Nebbe B, Prasad N


Department of Oral Health Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada


The following publications validate that the musculoskeletal system has a direct impact on the size and shape of the head and face:


Plastic Reconstr Surgery. 2004, Jan; 113(1):24-33

Craniofacial deformities in patients with uncorrected congenital muscular torticollis: an assessment of 3D computed tomography imaging.

Yu CC, Wong FH, Lo LJ, Chen FR


Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Institute of Public Health, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan


Plagiocephaly is essentially a "mishapen" head. The following published studies prove that mishapen heads and facial asymmetries go hand in hand and outline that there are various ways to improve it.


J Oral Maxillofacial Surg. 2005, Mar: 63(3):419

Anthropometric analysis of mandibular asymmetries in infants with deformational posterior plagiocephaly.

St John D, Mulliken JB, Kaban LB, Padwa BL


Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA


J Craniofacial Surgery. 2004, Jul: 15(4):643-50

Objective outcome analysis of soft shell helmet therapy in the treatment of deformational plagiocephaly.

Bruner TW, David LR, Gage HD, Argenta LC


Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA


Cleft Palate Craniofacial J. 2002, Nov; 39(6):582-6

Deformational posterior plagiocephaly: diagnosis and treatment.

Teichgraeber JF, Ault JK, Baumgartner J, Waller A, Messersmith M


Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Houston - Texas Medical School, Houston, Texas


J Neurosurgery. 1997, Nov: 87(5):667-70

Nonsurgical, nonorthotic treatment of occipital plagiocephaly: what is the natural history of the mishapen neonatal head?

Moss SD


Department of Paediatric Neurosurgery, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Arizona


J Craniofacial Surgery. 2001, Jul; 12(4):308-13

Active counterpositioning or orthotic device to treat positional plagiocephaly.

Loveday BP, de Chalain TB


School of Medicine, University of Aukland, New Zealand

















































































































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